Incidence and determinants of moderate COPD (GOLD II) in male smokers aged 40-65 years: 5-year follow up.

Br J Gen Pract. 2006 Sep;56(530):656-61.
Geijer RM, Sachs AP, Verheij TJ, Salome PL, Lammers JW, Hoes AW. Professor of general practice, Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major health problem with an estimated prevalence of 10-15% among smokers. The incidence of moderate COPD, as defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), is largely unknown.

Aim:To determine the cumulative incidence of moderate COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio [FEV1/FVC] <0.7 and FEV1 <80% predicted) and its association with patient characteristics in a cohort of male smokers.Design:Prospective cohort study

Setting:The city of IJsselstein, a small town in the Netherlands.Method:Smokers aged 40-65 years who were registered with local GPs, participated in a study to identify undetected COPD. Baseline measurements were taken in 1998 of 399 smokers with normal spirometry (n = 292) or mild COPD (FEV1/FVC <0.7 and FEV1 >/=80% predicted, n = 107) and follow-up measurements were conducted in 2003.

Results:After a mean follow-up of 5.2 years, 33 participants developed moderate COPD (GOLD II). This showed an estimated cumulative incidence of 8.3% (95% CI = 5.8 to 11.4) and a mean annual incidence of 1.6%. No participant developed severe airflow obstruction. The risk of developing moderate COPD in smokers with baseline mild COPD (GOLD I) was five times higher than in those with baseline normal spirometry (one in five versus one in 25).

Conclusions:In a cohort of middle-aged male smokers, the estimated cumulative incidence of moderate COPD (GOLD II) over 5 years was relatively high (8.3%). Age, childhood smoking, cough, and one or more GP contacts for lower respiratory tract problems were independently associated with incident moderate COPD.




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